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The Video of the Week now showing on Light After Life's Portal Page is: 'PSYCHIC' (Part 1 and 2)

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» Yahoo Mail down - again!
by Jamboree Yesterday at 23:42

» Wonderful images - fabulous music (Part 2)
by Kitkat 20th February 2018, 21:35

» Daughter fundraising to save her terminally ill mother
by Jamboree 18th February 2018, 11:53

» Kitkat's KK Blog
by Kitkat 15th February 2018, 21:36

» Keep a Word - Delete a Word
by Jamboree 15th February 2018, 19:31

» Poetry from the heart.
by Jamboree 12th February 2018, 07:46

» A Day in The Life of a Dictator - Documentary
by Jamboree 12th February 2018, 07:21

» Guess the word
by Whiskers 9th February 2018, 20:41

» A coconut in a coffin?
by Whiskers 9th February 2018, 20:35

» Books
by Stardust 9th February 2018, 16:11

» Limericks
by bimbow 8th February 2018, 21:22

» Stardust on the Moon
by Stardust 8th February 2018, 20:13

» Bureaucats: Whiskers in the Workplace
by Whiskers 4th February 2018, 12:21

» Is there a Cathy in the place?
by Kitkat 1st February 2018, 19:17

» Delicious and nutritious
by Stardust 1st February 2018, 14:38

» Chinese New Year
by Stardust 1st February 2018, 14:17

» Feather by the sea.
by Stardust 1st February 2018, 10:37

» Message in a bottle from 1980s resurfaces in 2018
by Kitkat 28th January 2018, 12:08

» What's your emergency?
by Whiskers 27th January 2018, 13:09

» YouTube free-loading vlogger gets a much needed lesson in reality
by Whiskers 22nd January 2018, 20:17

» Three-month-old baby says "hello"
by Kitkat 13th January 2018, 15:00

» The cartoon thread.
by bimbow 12th January 2018, 22:06

» 60 Christmas traditions around the world
by Kitkat 30th December 2017, 21:58

» Simon's Cat
by Kitkat 26th December 2017, 16:27

» A new(ish) song for Christmas.
by Whiskers 24th December 2017, 13:49

» Merry Christmas
by Whiskers 24th December 2017, 13:37

» The Christmas Thread
by Kitkat 20th December 2017, 21:22

» A reader's response to your article on food waste
by Whiskers 18th December 2017, 14:35

» Downward Dog
by Kitkat 4th December 2017, 21:35

» A very young Bee Gees treat
by Whiskers 29th November 2017, 16:35

» Prime cheek!
by Kitkat 28th November 2017, 09:32

» The life and achievements of Dr Elsie Inglis
by Kitkat 26th November 2017, 09:14

» Hidden disabilities: Pain beneath the surface
by Kitkat 21st November 2017, 21:20

» Scary photos
by Kitkat 19th November 2017, 12:50

» The 7-year-old neuroscientist wowing the internet
by Kitkat 16th November 2017, 10:03

» The cat killer stalking suburbia
by Whiskers 6th November 2017, 15:53

» It's that time again .....
by Kitkat 29th October 2017, 00:21

» Happy Halloween!
by Stardust 25th October 2017, 08:37

» Love makes the world go round
by Stardust 25th October 2017, 08:00

» Need help with homework (Hall Effect)
by Kitkat 24th October 2017, 12:18

» Well hello there!
by Whiskers 23rd October 2017, 23:53

» Madeleine McCann investigation continues ...
by Whiskers 23rd October 2017, 23:43

» Famous Youtubers... Do you watch them? Do you dislike them?
by Jamboree 23rd October 2017, 00:44

» Control your television with any object
by loner55 16th October 2017, 10:32

» Fahrenheit 451
by loner55 16th October 2017, 10:26

» HAPPY BIRTHDAY to Feather!
by Jamboree 15th October 2017, 17:43

» A walk through Dominica, hours after Hurricane Maria
by Kitkat 15th October 2017, 12:48

» SKEPS Forum
by Kitkat 8th October 2017, 22:00

» Quotes about Lifestye
by Whiskers 7th October 2017, 15:25

» MPs call for ESA death statistics to be published (Calum's List)
by Kitkat 30th September 2017, 18:23

» Songs from the heart
by Stardust 20th September 2017, 20:55

» Bodies of 'hundreds' of children buried in mass grave
by mac 19th September 2017, 12:25

» Psychics didn't foresee THAT coming!
by mac 16th September 2017, 15:14

» Number 7777
by Kitkat 14th September 2017, 14:10

» 'Messy' mum barred from pub
by Stardust 11th September 2017, 16:17

» [solved] Multiquote ?
by Whiskers 11th September 2017, 11:13

» Cosmic beauty
by Stardust 8th September 2017, 21:29

» Why men are happier people???
by Stardust 8th September 2017, 20:10

» A Granma's Anagrams
by Stardust 8th September 2017, 19:49

» Silly Endings.
by Stardust 8th September 2017, 19:45

» Pink rainbow
by Stardust 8th September 2017, 15:46

» Barking mad!
by Stardust 8th September 2017, 15:44

» Invasion of the sex-craved spiders! EEK!
by Stardust 8th September 2017, 15:38

» Surviving in Libya
by Kitkat 7th September 2017, 22:52

» The Forum Café
by Kitkat 7th September 2017, 14:53

» Hurricane Irma
by Kitkat 7th September 2017, 12:22

» Struggling To Login
by Kitkat 6th September 2017, 17:41

» Kitchen bat chase video goes viral
by Kitkat 6th September 2017, 17:21

» 10 things we didn't know last week ...
by Whiskers 4th September 2017, 14:31

» End of Summer Drinks
by EndoWarriror 1st September 2017, 13:53

» Bruce Forsyth dies aged 89
by EndoWarriror 1st September 2017, 13:34

» Notifications re new topics & posts on the forum
by Kitkat 1st September 2017, 13:23

» New forum design
by Jamboree 23rd August 2017, 13:03

» Photobucket
by Jamboree 10th August 2017, 02:36

» Hi from Brin
by Whiskers 6th August 2017, 12:14

» Delusions
by Kitkat 30th July 2017, 12:19

» BABY PLEASE DON'T GO ...
by Jamboree 25th July 2017, 16:03

» Wonderful images - fabulous music (Part 1)
by bimbow 21st July 2017, 22:21

» Photobucket no longer free ...
by Kitkat 8th July 2017, 11:05

» Problems logging in from your mobile, iPad or tablet?
by Kitkat 5th July 2017, 13:05

» Protest March through London
by Kitkat 1st July 2017, 17:41

» Our NHS
by Whiskers 29th June 2017, 16:49

» [solved] Forum showing me as online -- but I am not!
by Kitkat 25th June 2017, 10:41

» Day of Rage in London
by Kitkat 21st June 2017, 16:56

» NHS European Health Insurance Card
by Kitkat 20th June 2017, 21:26

» Postcards from the Shoutbox
by Whiskers 20th June 2017, 13:08

» Shout Box (SL and LAL)
by Kitkat 19th June 2017, 22:29

» A day out at the polling station
by Stardust 9th June 2017, 14:48

» Functions of the Blue Toolbar at top of the Forum
by Kitkat 5th June 2017, 10:47

» Light After Life forum's new address
by Kitkat 1st June 2017, 18:42

» Tick tock: The importance of knowing the right time
by Whiskers 1st June 2017, 11:23

» Derek Acorah to appear in Celebrity Big Brother 2017 ?
by Kitkat 24th May 2017, 22:38

» Publications
by Kitkat 22nd May 2017, 00:46

» The world's longest cat?
by Whiskers 19th May 2017, 09:22

» Nigeria
by Kitkat 19th May 2017, 08:54

» Redwater
by Kitkat 18th May 2017, 17:28

» Maggie's Cancer Care Centres
by Kitkat 17th May 2017, 18:07

» I'm being chased by an otter!
by Kitkat 16th May 2017, 13:07

» Eurovision Song Contest 2017
by Kitkat 16th May 2017, 11:49

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Rules of memory 'beautifully' rewritten

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Kitkat
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Rules of memory 'beautifully' rewritten

Post by Kitkat on 7th April 2017, 11:54

A fascinating discovery ...

Reported here by BBC's health and science reporter, James Gallagher

What really happens when we make and store memories has been unravelled in a discovery that surprised even the scientists who made it.

The US and Japanese team found that the brain "doubles up" by simultaneously making two memories of events.

One is for the here-and-now and the other for a lifetime, they found.

It had been thought that all memories start as a short-term memory and are then slowly converted into a long-term one.

Experts said the findings were surprising, but also beautiful and convincing.

'Significant advance'


Two parts of the brain are heavily involved in remembering our personal experiences.

The hippocampus is the place for short-term memories while the cortex is home to long-term memories.

This idea became famous after the case of Henry Molaison in the 1950s.

His hippocampus was damaged during epilepsy surgery and he was no longer able to make new memories, but his ones from before the operation were still there.

So the prevailing idea was that memories are formed in the hippocampus and then moved to the cortex where they are "banked".

The team at the Riken-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics have done something mind-bogglingly advanced to show this is not the case.

The experiments had to be performed on mice, but are thought to apply to human brains too.

They involved watching specific memories form as a cluster of connected brain cells in reaction to a shock.

Researchers then used light beamed into the brain to control the activity of individual neurons - they could literally switch memories on or off.

The results, published in the journal Science, showed that memories were formed simultaneously in the hippocampus and the cortex.

Prof Susumu Tonegawa, the director of the research centre, said: "This was surprising."

He told the BBC News website: "This is contrary to the popular hypothesis that has been held for decades.
"This is a significant advance compared to previous knowledge, it's a big shift."

The mice do not seem to use the cortex's long-term memory in the first few days after it is formed.

They forgot the shock event when scientists turned off the short-term memory in the hippocampus.

However, they could then make the mice remember by manually switching the long-term memory on (so it was definitely there).

"It is immature or silent for the first several days after formation," Prof Tonegawa said.

'Strong case'


The researchers also showed the long-term memory never matured if the connection between the hippocampus and the cortex was blocked.

So there is still a link between the two parts of the brain, with the balance of power shifting from the hippocampus to the cortex over time.

Dr Amy Milton, who researches memory at Cambridge University, described the study as "beautiful, elegant and extremely impressive".

She told the BBC News website: "I'm quite surprised.

"The idea you need the cortex for memories I'm comfortable with, but the fact it's so early is a surprise.

"This is [just] one study, but I think they've got a strong case, I think it's convincing and I think this will tell us about how memories are stored in humans as well."

For now, this is simply a piece of fundamental science that explains how our bodies work.

But Prof Tonegawa says it may illuminate what goes on in some diseases of memory including dementia.

One of his previous studies showed mice with Alzheimer's were still forming memories but were not able to retrieve them.

"Understanding how this happens may be relevant in brain disease patients," he said.

    Current date/time is 22nd February 2018, 05:03